Batik is a technique of wax-resist dyeing applied to whole cloth, or cloth made using this technique, originated from Indonesia. Batik is made either by drawing dots and lines of the resist with a spouted tool called a tjanting, or by printing the resist with a copper stamp called a cap. The applied wax resists dyes and therefore allows the artisan to colour selectively by soaking the cloth in one colour, removing the wax with boiling water, and repeating if multiple colours are desired.


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In this photo, Egg-plant Flower Batik
A physical symbol that directly shows the social strata of a particular person in his/her society. Egg-plant flower symbol refers to the meaning of someone’s rank or position. That is the reason why it is usually put on the shoulder. Egg-plant-patterned symbol is not arbitrarily owned by anybody. Batik for ordinary people is certainly different from batik owned by those who have important roles in indigenous communities such as tomenggong (aristrocacy leader), Baliatn, demang (head of the district), or warlords.

The tradition of batik making is found in various countries; the batik of Indonesia, however, may be the best-known. Indonesian batik made in the island of Java has a long history of acculturation, with diverse patterns influenced by a variety of cultures, and is the most developed in terms of pattern, technique, and the quality of workmanship. In October 2009, UNESCO designated Indonesian batik as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
The word batik is Javanese in origin. It may either come from the Javanese word amba (‘to write’) and titik (‘dot’), or may derive from a hypothetical Proto-Austronesian root *beCík (‘to tattoo’). The word is first recorded in English in the Encyclopædia Britannica of 1880, in which it is spelled battik. It is attested in the Indonesian Archipelago during the Dutch colonial period in various forms: mbatek, mbatik, batek and batik.
Once the fabric is painted with wax designs, it is placed in a dye bath where only the areas with no wax are dyed. Batik masters can produce complex designs by layering colors and using cracks in the wax to produce fine detail lines. Even if you are not a master, you can get some great effects using just a few materials and a creative spirit.

1. Prewash your fabrics.
Use hot water to wash the fabrics in a detergent (such as Synthrapol) to remove chemicals and impurities that can affect dyes

2. Dye your fabrics in base colors.
These base colors are the colors that will show under the wax resist

3.Melt your batik wax.
Batik wax comes in a brick that needs to be melted in either an electric wax pot or double boiler.
Use caution with hot wax. Do not heat it above 240° as it could begin to emit fumes or even catch fire.
It is not recommended that you heat wax on the stove top. Wax pots and double boilers heat the wax slowly and at a lower heat.

4. Stretch your fabric on an embroidery hoop.
The hoop will keep the fabric taught and stable, allowing you to apply wax with greater precision.If you are applying designs to large swaths of fabric, you can lay newsprint or cardboard on your work surface without stretching it on a hoop. The wax will penetrate through the fabric, so a protective surface underneath is highly recommended.


5. Begin to apply the wax with your tools.
Various tools will yield different line qualities, so some experimentation beforehand is recommended.
Use a single-spouted tjanting tool to draw thin lines and designs. It is a standard tool that is very versatile and comes in a variety of spout sizes.
A double-spouted tjanting tool creates parallel lines and can also be used in filling larger areas.
Brushes can also be used to cover large areas. They can be used traditionally, in broad strokes, or as a stippling tool for a dot pattern.
Use stamps for the application of uniform shapes. Stamps can be made of anything that can take the heat of the wax. Try carving a potato into a shape, or using the end of a celery stalk to stamp out half circles.

6. Regulate your wax temperature
The wax should be hot enough to penetrate through the fabric, but not be so hot and thin that it spreads when applied. The wax will be clear if it has penetrated to the other side of the fabric.


7. Get ready to tub-dye your fabric
When considering which dye colors to use, it is recommended that you begin with the lightest colors first (like green) and then move towards darker colors.


Wash your fabric in Synthrapol.
Dissolve your dye by following instructions on the package. Some dyes (like reds) are harder to dissolve than other.
Add in the appropriate amount of non-iodized salt. For a 1/2 pound of dry fabric, add in 1 1/2 cups of salt. For a pound of fabric, use 3 cups of salt.
Add in your damp fabric. Stir gently, but frequently for 20 minutes.

Mix up your soda ash. Soda ash, or sodium carbonate, is used to bond the dye to the cellulose in fiber. Dissolve the ash in warm water and add it into the tub slowly (over the course of 15 minutes), being careful not to dump it directly onto the fabric (which could cause discoloration). For each 1/2 pound of dry fabric, add in 1/6 cups of salt. For a pound of fabric, use 1/3 cups of salt. Stir gently, but frequently for another 30 minutes.

Rinse you fabric and wash out excess dye. Run cool water over your fabric until it runs clear. Then wash it in hot water using Synthrapol. With some darker colors, like red or brown, a second washing may be necessary to remove all excess dye. Allow the fabric to dry.

8. Repeat another application of wax to add more layers of color and design.
With every additional layer you wish to add, follow the steps for tub dyeing. Remember to tub dye your darkest colors last.


9.Remove the wax
When you are done with all the color dyeing, you may remove the wax in one of two ways.
Boil the wax out. Fill a pot large enough to hold your fabric with water and a few drops of Synthrapol. Once the water begins to boil, add in your fabric and weigh it down with a rock to keep the wax (which will be floating at the top) from re-bonding with the fabric. After a few minutes, the wax will pull out of the fabric. After all the wax appears to be out of the fabric, allow the pot to cool completely, and peel the wax layer from the top of the pot.


Iron the wax out. Place the fabric between two sheets of absorbent paper and run the iron over the sandwiched fabric. The wax can leave behind a residue, so use care to ensure the wax is removed. Periodically changing out the papers can aid in wax removal.
10.Wash and dry your fabric.
Wash your fabric with Synthrapol one last time to ensure all of the dyes have been released. Dry your fabric either on a line, or in the dryer. All batiked.


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